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TypeScript

Docs: https://www.typescriptlang.org/docs

Handbook: https://www.typescriptlang.org/docs/handbook/intro.html

CLI

Setup: https://www.typescriptlang.org/download

Install locally, don't use a global install:

npm install --save-dev typescript
npm i -D typescript
yarn add --dev typescript

If we install it locally in our project, we can run that version using npx or yarn:

npx tsc
yarn tsc
yarn tsc --noEmit

Run tsc on a specific files:

tsconfig.json

TSConfig Reference: https://www.typescriptlang.org/tsconfig

https://www.typescriptlang.org/docs/handbook/tsconfig-json.html

Create tsconfig.json: npx tsc --init or yarn run tsc --init.

tsconfig.json options to enable

"noImplicitReturns": true /* Report error when not all code paths in function return a value. */

Share tsconfig.json

https://stackoverflow.com/questions/37579969/how-to-use-multiple-tsconfig-files-in-vs-code

├── tsconfig-base.json
├── server/
│ ├── tsconfig.json
├── client/
│ ├── tsconfig.json
// tsconfig-base.json
{
"compilerOptions": {
},
"exclude": [],
"include": []
}

// server/tsconfig.json or client/tsconfig.json
{
"extends": "../tsconfig-base.json",
"compilerOptions": {
},
"include": []
}

"strict": true

Setting strict to true in tsconfig.json (or using the tsc --strict flag) enables all this compiler options:

  1. alwaysStrict
  2. noImplicitAny
  3. noImplicitThis
  4. strictBindCallApply
  5. strictFunctionTypes
  6. strictNullChecks
  7. strictPropertyInitialization
  8. useUnknownInCatchVariables

To know which checks are enabled by 'strict' search for 'true if strict' here:

@ts-expect-error

From https://www.typescriptlang.org/docs/handbook/release-notes/typescript-3-9.html#-ts-expect-error-comments

ts-ignore or ts-expect-error?

In some ways // @ts-expect-error can act as a suppression comment, similar to // @ts-ignore. The difference is that // @ts-ignore will do nothing if the following line is error-free.

You might be tempted to switch existing // @ts-ignore comments over to // @ts-expect-error, and you might be wondering which is appropriate for future code. While it’s entirely up to you and your team, we have some ideas of which to pick in certain situations.

Pick ts-expect-error if:

  • you’re writing test code where you actually want the type system to error on an operation
  • you expect a fix to be coming in fairly quickly and you just need a quick workaround
  • you’re in a reasonably-sized project with a proactive team that wants to remove suppression comments as soon affected code is valid again

Pick ts-ignore if:

  • you have a larger project and new errors have appeared in code with no clear owner
  • you are in the middle of an upgrade between two different versions of TypeScript, and a line of code errors in one version but not another.
  • you honestly don’t have the time to decide which of these options is better.

null or undefined?

https://stackoverflow.com/questions/6604749/what-reason-is-there-to-use-null-instead-of-undefined-in-javascript

https://basarat.gitbook.io/typescript/recap/null-undefined

https://basarat.medium.com/null-vs-undefined-in-typescript-land-dc0c7a5f240a

Douglas Crockford: pick undefined, avoid null - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PSGEjv3Tqo0&t=561s

https://github.com/microsoft/TypeScript/issues/9653

https://www.typescriptlang.org/docs/handbook/release-notes/typescript-2-0.html

https://dev.to/johannesjo/how-do-you-deal-with-null-vs-undefined-4899

https://github.com/nene/eslint-plugin-no-null

Gotcha. If we use undefined we don't get an error if we forget to initialize a field in a class constructor, but if we use null we do:

class User {
name: string | null // GOOD - TS2564: Property 'country' has no initializer and is not definitely assigned in the constructor.
country: string | undefined // BAD - No error :(

constructor(name: string | undefined, country: string | null) {
// We forgot to initialize the fields here:
// this.name = name
// this.country = country
}
}

Excess property checking

For object literals.

https://www.typescriptlang.org/docs/handbook/interfaces.html#excess-property-checks

type User = {
id: number
name: string
}

const user: User = {
id: 1,
name: 'Anna',
password: 'abcd', // <- error
}
// TS2322: Type '{ id: number; name: string; password: string; }' is not assignable to type 'User'.
// Object literal may only specify known properties, and 'password' does not exist in type 'User'.

function printUser(user: User) {
alert(user.name)
}

printUser({
id: 1,
name: 'Anna',
password: 'abcd', // <- Same error as above
})

// Note that it doesn't work if we define an intermediate variable:
const data = {
id: 1,
name: 'Anna',
password: 'abcd',
}
const user: User = data // No error here

Can be disabled:

Make switch exhaustive

/**
* Use it to ensure that a switch is exhaustive.
* From https://stackoverflow.com/questions/39419170/how-do-i-check-that-a-switch-block-is-exhaustive-in-typescript
*/
// eslint-disable-next-line @typescript-eslint/no-unused-vars
export function assertUnreachable(switchParameter: never): never {
throw Error('Unreachable code violation')
}

Usage:

type Char = 'A' | 'B' | 'C'

function doSomething(char: Char): void {
switch (char) {
case 'A':
break
case 'B':
break
// case 'C' is missing
default:
// TS2345: Argument of type 'string' is not assignable to parameter of type 'never'.
assertUnreachable(char)
}
}

Here there are some ideas: https://basarat.gitbook.io/typescript/type-system/discriminated-unions

Classes

Arrow function property vs method

From https://www.typescriptlang.org/docs/handbook/2/classes.html#arrow-functions

class MyClass {
name = 'MyClass'
getName = () => {
return this.name
}
}

This will use more memory, because each class instance will have its own copy of each function defined this way

Also see https://stackoverflow.com/questions/51464318/arrow-function-vs-class-methods-memory-footprint

Exclude methods from classes

https://stackoverflow.com/questions/55479658/how-to-create-a-type-excluding-instance-methods-from-a-class-in-typescript

https://stackoverflow.com/questions/59272031/how-to-define-typescript-partial-type-to-accept-only-properties

class Folder {
name: string
isPublic: boolean

constructor(name: string, isPublic: boolean) {
this.name = name
this.isPublic = isPublic
}

// There are 3 ways to add an instance "method"

// Method - folder.isPrivate()
isPrivate(): boolean {
return !this.isPublic
}

// Field - folder.isPrivate()
isPrivate = () => {
return !this.isPublic
}
// We can specify the type:
isPrivate: () => boolean = () => {
return !this.isPublic
}

// Getter - folder.isPrivate
get isPrivate(): boolean {
return !this.isPublic
}
}

// All 3 options trigger this error:
// TS2741: Property 'isPrivate' is missing in type '{ name: string; isPublic: false; }' but
// required in type 'Folder'.
const folder: Folder = {
name: 'Documents',
isPublic: false,
}

// We can exclude the methods with:
type ExcludeFunctionProperties<T> = Omit<
T,
{ [K in keyof T]-?: T[K] extends Function ? K : never }[keyof T]
>

// The resulting type is {name: string, isPublic: boolean} if `isPrivate` is defined
// with a method or field, but will be {name: string, isPublic: boolean, isPrivate: boolean}
// if defined with the getter (so don't use getters!).
type FolderNoFunc = ExcludeFunctionProperties<Folder>

// No error "Property 'isPrivate' is missing..." here :)
const folderNoFunc: FolderNoFunc = {
name: 'Documents',
isPublic: false,
}

// TS2339: Property 'isPrivate' does not exist on type 'FolderNoFunc'.
folderNoFunc.isPrivate()

// We can use a Folder where it expects a FolderNoFunc, since a Folder has more properties:
function printFolderNoFunc(folderNoFunc: FolderNoFunc) {}
printFolderNoFunc(folder) // OK :)
// But we can't use FolderNoFunc where it expects Folder, we get the error:
// TS2345: Argument of type 'FolderNoFunc' is not assignable to parameter of type 'Folder'.
// Property 'isPrivate' is missing in type 'FolderNoFunc' but required in type 'Folder'.
function printFolder(folder: Folder) {}
printFolder(folderNoFunc) // Error :(

Type guards / type narrowing

https://basarat.gitbook.io/typescript/type-system/typeguard

https://www.typescriptlang.org/docs/handbook/2/narrowing.html

A user-defined type guard is a function whose return type is a type predicate.

export function isLoading<T>(arg: 'loading' | T | Error): arg is 'loading' {
return arg === 'loading'
}

export function isSuccess<T>(arg: 'loading' | T | Error): arg is T {
return arg !== 'loading' && !(arg instanceof Error)
}

export function isError<T>(arg: 'loading' | T | Error): arg is Error {
return arg instanceof Error
}

Assertion functions

https://www.typescriptlang.org/docs/handbook/release-notes/typescript-3-7.html#assertion-functions

https://www.lucaspaganini.com/academy/assertion-functions-typescript-narrowing-5

export function assertUser(user: User | undefined): asserts user is User {
if (!user) {
throw new Error('User is undefined')
}
}

function doSomething(user: User | undefined) {
user.name // TS2532: Object is possibly 'undefined'.
const u: User = user // TS2322: Type 'User | undefined' is not assignable to type 'User'.
assertUser(user)
// user is now just User, not User | undefined
user.name // No error
const u: User = user // No error
}

Result<T, E> type

https://gist.github.com/s-panferov/5269524dcf23dad9a1ef

interface Loading {
kind: 'loading'
}

interface Success<T> {
kind: 'success'
data: T
}

interface Error<T> {
kind: 'error'
error: T
}

type Result<S, E> = Loading | Success<S> | Error<E>

type GetProductResult = Result<Product, 'network-error' | 'product-not-found'>

const assertions

https://www.typescriptlang.org/docs/handbook/release-notes/typescript-3-4.html#const-assertions

Utility Types

https://www.typescriptlang.org/docs/handbook/utility-types.html

Make fields optional: Partial<User>. Example: Partial<{ email: string; password: string }> is {email?: string, password?: string}

Make fields required: Required<SomeType>. Is the opposite of Partial.

Return type of an async function: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/48011353/how-to-unwrap-type-of-a-promise

typescript-eslint ban-types

https://typescript-eslint.io/rules/ban-types/

https://github.com/microsoft/TypeScript/issues/21732#issuecomment-886221640

I prefer {} over Record<string, never> for an empty object because it triggers an error sooner.

const a: {} = {}
a.x // Error TS2339: Property 'x' does not exist on type '{}'.

const b: Record<string, never> = {}
b.x // It's just 'never' but no error is shown yet :/
b.x.y // Error TS2339: Property 'bye' does not exist on type 'never'.

To use {} suppress the rule with // eslint-disable-next-line @typescript-eslint/ban-types.