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The client has the private key (contained on a .pem file), and the server the public key (a file with the .pub extension, saved at ~/.ssh/authorized_keys). Anyone with the public key can access the instance.

chmod 400 us-east-kp.pem # Fix WARNING: UNPROTECTED PRIVATE KEY FILE!
ssh -i us-east-kp.pem

Close connection: exit

You can generate the public key from the private key at any time with: ssh-keygen -y -f key.pem > source